HTML / CSS / JavaScript Tutorial

HTML Tutorial

1. Introduction

[this page | pdf | back links]

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is one of the three main components of modern webpages, along with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and JavaScript. HTML indicates to the browser what elements should be included in the webpage (and in what order). CSS indicates how each element should be styled. JavaScript provides a means for webpage authors to manipulate these elements programmatically and in response to actions by the end user. Tutorials and reference material covering all three components are available here.


In these pages, we describe HTML further. Text used within HTML, CSS or JavaScript files is generally shown in courier new (i.e. a fixed space) font. The pages contain links to an extensive body of reference material explaining HTML, CSS and JavaScript in detail. We also provide a wide range of examples, which can help you understand better how HTML, CSS and JavaScript work. See below for further details on how to access these examples.


The concept of a markup language is explained further here. A document written in a markup language like HTML has parts that get rendered in the eventual output, but also parts that inform the rendering software how to interpret the remaining text. ‘Rendering’ here refers to the process of transforming the text document containing the HTML text into e.g. its visual representation on a screen.


The markup used by HTML includes tags, like <p>…</p>, to demarcate different HTML elements within the same webpage. In this case the <p> tag opens the relevant element and the </p> closes it. <p> elements are typically used to delimit paragraphs in HTML. HTML elements can be nested within other elements. Most elements can also be qualified by a range of attributes. For example, if we want to make the text within a <p> element appear red we can ascribe it a CSS style, along the lines of <p style="color:red;">.


Over time HTML has been refined. At the time of writing the latest version is HTML 5. Some aspects of earlier versions of HTML are no longer recognised in HTML 5 and some of these are noted where relevant.


Tutorial contents:


1.      Introduction (i.e. this page)

2.      Getting started

3.      Carriage returns and thematic break lines

4.      Commenting

5.      Special characters

6.      Hyperlinks

7.      HTML elements (and their attributes)

8.      Browser feature detection


To access HTML, CSS or JavaScript examples please go to the webpage on www.nematrian.com that covers the specific feature you are seeking help with.


Disclaimer: Whilst we have made efforts to check the accuracy of the material in these pages, you should note that HTML, CSS and JavaScript are evolving languages. Information contained in this document may therefore be inaccurate or out-of-date. You should not rely on the accuracy or fitness for purpose of any material that you obtain from the Nematrian website (or from its associated web services). If you need these results to be accurate or fit for purpose then you should seek independent corroboration of whatever you extract from the Nematrian website. Whilst using the site, users may be directed to the websites of other organisations, over which Nematrian may have no control and for which it takes no responsibility. A copy of the current Nematrian Web Services License Agreement can be viewed here.


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